Organic farming is an agricultural system that aims to maintain harmony (harmony) with natural systems, to utilize and develop as much as possible the natural processes in farm management. Organic farming avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulator and other stimulants that contain artificial chemicals. In other words, organic agriculture a farming system that does not use artificial chemicals; embody the attitude and behavior of life that respects nature; and believes that life is a gift of God that must be preserved.
Usefulness of organic farming is basically to limit the possible negative impact caused by the cultivation of chemical or often referred to as conventional agriculture. Although organic farming systems in all its aspects clearly provides many benefits to the agricultural community development and environmental preservation, including conservation of land resources, but its application is not easy and will face many obstacles. Public policy factors and socio-political development of the system determine the direction of agriculture as an element of economic development (Sutanto, 2002). Organic farming systems to bring people back to nature, while still improving the productivity of agricultural produce by improving soil quality by not wearing or reduce the use of chemicals. Organic farming respect the sovereignty and autonomy of farmers based on local values.
Rosenow, et al (1996) suggest organic farming in other versions, ie an agricultural system that promotes environmental aspects 8, social, economic, to produce food and fiber. It looks at soil fertility as a basis of production capacity and the nature of plants, animals, biophysics, landscap, so as to optimize the quality of all the factors are integrated with each other or hanging. Organic farming emphasizes the practice of crop rotation, recycling organic waste naturally without chemical inputs. Optimal inventory levels of organic materials are needed to achieve the nutrient cycling of nutrients in the soil. Therefore, organic farming can be regarded as the basis of agricultural production, the basis for animal husbandry, the basis for the natural ecological balance.
The philosophy of organic farming is the cycle of life according to the laws of nature, back to nature, in harmony with nature, serve nature outright, whole, holistic, so that even nature will give maximum yield agricultural production to humans. So, this relationship is reciprocal. There is a striking difference between organic and conventional farming, both anatomically and economically.
Types of Fertilizer
According Hamida (2010) Fertilizers can be distinguished on the basis of origin material, compound, phase, method of use, physiological reactions, the amount and kind of nutrients it contains. The type – the type of fertilizer is as follows:
Based on the origin:
Natural fertilizer, a fertilizer that occur in nature or are made with natural ingredients without any meaningful process. For example, compost, manure, guano fertilizer, green manure, and fertilizer rock P.
Artificial fertilizers, the fertilizer made by the manufacturer. For example, TSP, urea, Rustika, and nitrophoska. Fertilizer is made by the manufacturer to change the natural resources through the process of physical or chemical processes.
Organic fertilizer, a fertilizer in the form of organic compounds. Most natural fertilizer classified as organic fertilizer, such as manure, compost, and manure guano. Excluding natural fertilizer organic fertilizer, such as rock phosphate, are generally derived from a type of rock apatite (Ca3 (PO4) 2)
Minerals are inorganic fertilizer or manure from inorganic compounds. Virtually all artificial fertilizers classified as inorganic fertilizers.
Based on the phase:
Solid fertilizers, a solubility ranging soluble in water until the poorly soluble.
Liquid fertilizer, is a first-soluble fertilizers into water, fertilizer generally is sprayed onto the leaves. Because it contains a lot of nutrients, both macro and micro, it is relatively expensive. Fertilizer liquid ammonia is a liquid fertilizer N levels with very high around 83%, its use can be injected through the soil.
Based on how to use:
Foliar fertilizers, the fertilizer means fertilizer dissolved in water and sprayed on the leaf surface.
Root fertilizer or soil fertilizer, the fertilizer applied to the soil around the plant to be absorbed by the roots.
Based on physiological reactions:
Fertilizers that have physiological reactions surly, mean when the fertilizer is given into the ground, causing the tendency of the soil becomes more acidic (pH is low). For example, Za and urea.
Fertilizers that have physiological reactions basis, is a fertilizer which when administered into the ground causing soil pH tends to rise, such as fertilizers Chile saltpeter, calnitro, calcium cyanide.
Based on the amount of nutrients contained:
Fertilizers containing only one type of plant nutrients alone. For example, only urea containing N, TSP only contains nutrients P alone (though there contains nutrients Ca)
Compound fertilizer, a fertilizer that contains two or more plant nutrients. Example: NPK, amophoska, and nitrophoska.
Based on the kind of plant nutrients:
Macro fertilizer, a fertilizer containing only macro nutrients alone. For example, NPK and nitrophoska.
Micro fertilizer, a fertilizer containing only micro-nutrients alone. For example mikrovet, mikroplek, metallic.
Fertilizer mix of macro and micro, such as fertilizer Gandasil, bayfolan, Rustika.
Terms of Organic Fertilizer
The organic fertilizer is a fertilizer that is derived from crop residues, animal, or human, such as manure, green manure, compost and a liquid or solid. Organic fertilizers is bulky with macro and micro nutrient content is low so required in large quantities. The main advantage is that it can use organic fertilizers can improve the fertility of chemical, physical, and biological soil, other than as a nutrient source for plants (Suriyadikarta, 2006).
The requirements that must be owned organic fertilizer, namely: a). N lemasnya substance or substances must be in the form of organic compounds, so it must undergo decomposition into N compounds which can easily be absorbed by plants. b). The fertilizer can be said not to leave the rest of the organic acid in the soil. c). The organic fertilizer should have levels of organic C compounds such as carbohydrate (Sutejo and Kartasaputra, 1990).
Benefits of Organic Fertilizer
Various research indicates that most land-intensive agriculture has experienced declining productivity and land degradation, mainly associated with very low content of organic carbon in the soil, which is 2%. Yet to obtain optimal productivity takes about 2.5% organic carbon. Organic fertilizers are very useful for the improvement of agricultural production both in quality and quantity, reduce environmental pollution, and improve the quality of the land in a sustainable manner. The use of organic fertilizers in the long term can increase the productivity of land and prevent land degradation.
Source material for organic fertilizer is very diverse, with physical characteristics and chemical constituents are so diverse that the effect of the use of organic fertilizers to the land and the plants can vary. In addition, its role is large enough to repair the physical, chemical and biological soil environment. Organic fertilizers added to the soil will experience several times phases of refurbishment by micro-organisms to be humus.Bahan organic soil also acts as a source of energy and food soil microbes that can increase the microbial activity in the supply of plant nutrients.
Rosmarkam and Nasih (2002), stating the properties either owned organic fertilizers on soil fertility are as follows:
- Organic material in the mineralization process to be complete release of plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and micronutrients) in an amount not too much and relatively small.
- Organic materials can improve soil structure, causing the land to become a light to be processed, and easily penetrated by roots
- Organic materials can facilitate the processing of heavy soils.
- Organic matter increases the water holding capacity, so that the soil’s ability to provide water to more water moisture san more awake.
- Organic materials make better soil permeability, decrease the permeability of coarse-textured soil (sandy) and left permeability at very soft soils (clay).
- Organic matter increases KPK (cation exchange capacity) so that the ability to bind cations is higher. As a result, if the soil fertilized with organic materials with high doses of plant nutrients are not easily arranged.
- Organic materials improve soil biological life (both of the higher animals, or low level) to be better because of the availability of meal is guaranteed.